In today’s rapidly evolving business landscape, encountering commercial disputes is nearly unavoidable. Such conflicts can manifest in a range of ways, from partnership disputes and real estate claims to contractual disagreements, all of which can disrupt your operations and impact your business. Knowing how to navigate these challenges is vital. The following guide offers essential steps to take if your business in Romania finds itself embroiled in a commercial dispute. This resource has been prepared by our lawyers, Raluca Gune, Senior Associate, and Andreia Dumitrescu, Partner, both of whom bring extensive experience in Romanian commercial law and dispute resolution.

Types of Commercial Disputes in Romania

Understanding the variety of commercial disputes that can arise helps you better prepare for potential challenges. Below are common categories, each with its unique complexities:

Partnership and Shareholder Disagreements

These conflicts often involve questions of governance, profit distribution, and business strategy. They can become particularly challenging if no prior agreements are in place outlining dispute resolution mechanisms.

Real Estate and Property Claims

These disputes can range from issues related to lease agreements, property rights, or zoning laws. They can become complicated due to local or government regulations that could be applicable.

Contractual Disputes

These are conflicts that arise from the breach of contract terms, non-performance, or issues related to contract interpretation. The scope can range from supply chain contracts to customer agreements, and the implications vary based on the terms of the contract.

Employment Conflicts

These disputes can arise from wrongful termination, discrimination, or issues concerning employee benefits. They can potentially result in reputational damage and financial liability for the company.

Intellectual Property Litigations

These involve conflicts over patents, trademarks, copyrights, or trade secrets. Such disputes often require specialized legal expertise due to the technical and legal complexities involved.

By understanding the complexities related to each type of commercial dispute, businesses can take proactive measures to avoid them or, if they are inevitable, manage them more effectively.

Step 1: Engage Specialized Legal Counsels

As soon as a dispute arises, consult attorneys specializing in business litigation. Prompt legal consultation will help you understand your rights, responsibilities, and available strategic options. If you’re dealing with international jurisdictions, consult lawyers authorized to practice in the relevant courts.

What to Expect:

  • Initial Consultation: the legal team will gather information about (i) the dispute’s circumstances, (ii) will ask for relevant documents, and (iii) try to identify with you any potential witnesses.
  • Legal Analysis: lawyers (i) will assess broadly the merits of your case, (ii) will identify strengths and weaknesses, (iii) will ask questions and documents and (iv) and outline potential legal strategies.

Step 2: Document Diligently

Maintaining accurate records of all communications, documents and actions related to the litigation is vital in a commercial dispute. Complete records must be kept and searched at the time of the dispute. Next, your legal team will guide you in compiling all relevant contracts, communications, invoices and other pertinent materials that can substantiate your claims and defenses.

This not only assists attorneys in building the case, but also provides a clear perspective on the progression of the situation for all parties involved. Documentation will be the source of the statement of claim or defenses so keep everything at hand. Last but not the least, provide all and every information related to the case to your lawyers, not only the one that seems relevant to you from a business perspective. Sometimes even the clearest cases could be lost if some information is forgotten and then after is exhibited by the counterparty in court.

Step 3: Litigation and Resolution

Before heading straight to court, disputes can be resolved through negotiation without escalating to formal legal proceedings. This can be quicker and less costly than traditional litigation and can aid in preserving business relationships. So, give it a try and ask your lawyer to send a letter to your contractual partner to notify the dispute. In cases where resolution outside the courtroom is not possible, litigation might become necessary. This involves taking the dispute to court. Your legal team will craft a legal strategy, draft de procedural documents and represent your interests in court and advocate for a fair resolution.

Litigation Process:

  • Written Phase: Crafting formal statements, gathering evidence, and preparing interrogatories.
  • Oral Phase: Includes cross-examination, presentation of evidence, and legal arguments in court.

Throughout this process, your legal team may send you drafts for review and comments and will keep you informed about the progress and potential outcomes.

Step 4: Manage Reputation

While under litigation, it’s crucial to manage public communications cautiously. Consult your lawyers and public relations officers before making public statements to ensure they don’t adversely affect your case.

Step 5: Post-Resolution Actions

Once a dispute is solved, there might be post-resolution actions required that need the advice from a lawyer, such as enforcing judgments, revising contract or implementing preventive measures to mitigate future disputes. This might become the most important step of your litigation journey as a favorable court ruling must not be a picture on the wall.


In the complex and often volatile world of business in Romania, commercial disputes can be both disruptive and stressful. They not only strain relationships but can also divert critical resources away from your core operations. However, it’s crucial to remember that these challenges also present opportunities for growth and improvement. With the right legal guidance and a proactive approach, your business can not only navigate these turbulent waters but emerge stronger and more resilient.

An experienced legal team is indispensable in this journey. Such professionals can:

  • Provide Legal Counsel: They can interpret the myriad of complex laws, regulations, and contractual obligations that may be relevant to your case, demystifying the legal landscape you have to navigate.
  • Develop Legal Strategies: Specialized attorneys can craft effective legal strategies that are aligned with your business goals. They look at the bigger picture, ensuring that the approach taken serves both the immediate and long-term interests of your enterprise.
  • Negotiate: One of the preliminary steps in dispute resolution involves negotiation. Skilled lawyers can leverage their expertise in negotiation tactics to secure settlements that are favorable to you, often circumventing the need for a lengthy court battle.
  • Plead in Court: Should negotiations fail and litigation becomes unavoidable, competent legal representatives will stand by your side, presenting your case effectively and advocating for your interests.
  • Recovery and Defense: Winning a court case is just the first step. An experienced legal team can also assist you in recovering the amount awarded and defend against any contestations or appeals made by the debtor.

In conclusion, the complexities inherent in commercial disputes require a well-rounded, informed approach for resolution. Being educated about the types of disputes, understanding the legal avenues available, and choosing the right legal team are foundational steps toward a successful resolution. As a business leader, equipping yourself with this knowledge can transform potential setbacks into stepping stones for future success.


Q1: What is the significance of promptly consulting specialized legal counsel in Romania when a commercial dispute arises?

Consulting specialized legal counsel immediately helps in assessing the gravity of the situation, outlining your rights and obligations, and formulating a legal strategy that aligns with your business objectives. Delaying legal advice can result in missed opportunities for settlement, weakening of your case, or even legal penalties.

Q2: How can a well-documented history help my case in a commercial dispute in Romania?

A well-organized and comprehensive documentation serves as concrete evidence in court, aids your legal team in crafting a strong case, and may deter the opposing party from pursuing weak or unfounded claims. Lack of proper documentation can severely hinder your ability to present a strong defense or claim.

Q3: What role does negotiation play in resolving commercial disputes in Romania, and when is the best time to initiate it?

Negotiation serves as a frontline strategy in resolving commercial disputes and is often the quickest and most cost-effective method in Romania. The best time to initiate negotiation is usually as soon as the dispute arises, and before positions harden. It offers the chance for both parties to present their case informally and can help preserve long-term business relationships. A successful negotiation can resolve the dispute without resorting to the time and cost-intensive court process, benefiting all parties involved.

Q4: What strategies can businesses employ to manage the public perception during the litigation process in Romania?

Managing public perception during litigation involves carefully controlling the narrative. This can be done through press releases, reports (eg. for listed companies) or social media updates. However, it’s essential to consult with your legal team before making any public statements to ensure the alignment with the legal strategy and do not compromise your case.

Q5: After the dispute is resolved, what steps should a business take to minimize the risk of future conflicts?

Post-resolution, a business should consult its legal team for advice on enforcing judgments and possibly revising existing contracts or internal policies to prevent similar disputes. It’s also advisable to conduct a ‘lessons learned’ review to understand what led to the dispute and how to avoid it in the future.


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